Are You Sweetening A Wine Before Bottling? Then Read This…

Man Sweetening A Wine Before BottlingThis is my first time making apple wine. So far it is racked into it’s secondary. Once ready to bottle, do I add a campden tablet to kill any remaining yeast and then add some sugar to make a sweeter apple wine? I have tried to do some research, but have found myself more confused.

Name: Matt
State: Virginia
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Hello Matt,

First, thank you for such the great question. Sweetening a wine before bottling is a subject that causes great confusion among many novice winemakers.

Most of the confusion surrounds the thought that Campden tablets will kill yeast. For the most part this is true. Campden tablets will kill yeast… so long as it’s a wild yeast! But, if you use a domesticated wine yeast to make your wine – just like everybody does in this century – it’s a completely different story.

Domesticated wine yeast, such as that produced by Lalvin or Red Star, have been acclimated to the active ingredient in Campden tablets, sulfite. In other words, these domesticate yeast strains have been bred to become somewhat immune to effects of sulfite.

This does not mean that using Campden tablets will not kill some of the wine yeast. In fact, it will kill some or even a significant part of the yeast colony, depending on how many tablets you use, but it will not kill all of the wine yeast. This is where the problem comes in for the home winemaker sweetening a wine before bottling.

Shop Campden TabletsIf you are sweetening a wine before bottling it is essential that the wine yeast be dealt with so that it cannot start re-growing a colony again. Campden tablets will not do this. It may put a momentary dent in the yeasts’ ability to ferment, but it does not take away their ability to propagate and grow back into numbers that can cause a winemaker some grief in the form of a rejuvenated fermentation.

If only Campden tablets are used when sweetening a wine before bottling, then there is a decent chance that a fermentation will occur in the wine bottle. The result is a buildup of pressure from the CO2 gas, and eventually one of two things will happen: either the corks will start popping out, or the wine bottles will fail. Neither one is a good thing.

So Matt, I imagine by this time you are wondering, what are you supposed to do when sweetening a wine before bottling? It’s really pretty straight forward. And, you almost had the right idea.

 

Sweeten The wine To Taste:
Most home winemakers will use cane sugar as a sweetener, but you can try sweetening the wine with honey, corn sugar, beet sugar, etc. There is room for experimentation. Just realize that regardless of whatever you use, it needs to be completely dissolved and evenly blended into the wine. Don’t skimp on the stirring.

 

Add Campden Tablets To The Wine:
For sure, you want to add sulfites such as Campden tablets. You can also use potassium metabisulfite or sodium metabisulfite, instead. Both of these work in the same way as Campden tablets. The only difference is that they are in a granulated form. If using Campden tablets, add one per gallon. If you are using either potassium metabisulfite or sodium metabisulfite, add 1/16 of a teaspoon per gallon.Shop Potassium Bisulfite

 

Add Potassium Sorbate To The Wine:
Up to now I have not mentioned potassium sorbate, (aka, wine stabilizer) but it is the real key to sweetening a wine before bottling. Potassium sorbate does not kill or destroy yeast, wild or domestic, but instead, it stops them from reproducing.

Any yeast fermentation thrives on the fact that a single yeast cell can reproduce itself several times before it dies. It does so through a process called budding. A little bud will emerge from the yeast’s cell wall. The bud will eventually separate and become its own yeast cell. This is how a yeast colony propagates throughout a fermentation. If the yeast cannot reproduce, then the fermentation cannot sustain itself.

This is where potassium sorbate comes in. Potassium sorbate interrupts the reproductive process by coating the yeasts’ outer cell outer wall, making budding impossible. If the yeast cannot bud, the colony will not flourish.

The recommended dosage for potassium sorbate is 1/2 teaspoon per gallons.

 

Additional Thoughts:
One thing you can do to insure the success when sweetening a wine before bottling is to give the wine plenty of time so that it is can drop out as much yeast as possible. Yeast will fall to the bottom when they run out of sugar to feed on, but it takes time for these very fine particles to fall completely out through gravity. To help speed up the process you can treat the wine with bentonite then follow it up with a polish fining agent such as isinglass or Kitosol 40.Shop Potassium Sorbate

Also realize that Campden tablets and potassium sorbate will have little if any effect on an active fermentation, so do not try to use these ingredients to stop a fermentation in progress. Domesticated wine yeast are too immune to sulfites, and the amount of potassium sorbate it would take to coat such a large number of active yeast cells makes the dosage required unreasonable.

That’s pretty much the ins-and-outs of sweetening a wine before bottling. To summarize quickly, you give the wine plenty of wine to drop out the the excessive yeast cells. Even use a wine clarifier. Then sweeten the wine to taste, and then add the Campden tablets, then the potassium sorbate.
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Ed Kraus is a 3rd generation home brewer/winemaker and has been an owner of E. C. Kraus since 1999. He has been helping individuals make better wine and beer for over 25 years.

20 thoughts on “Are You Sweetening A Wine Before Bottling? Then Read This…

  1. Thank You!
    I was wondering why my banana wine restarted fermenting. I waited until it stopped, and after tasting it, I decided it needed sweetening so added some sugar. Now I know why.

  2. I put the Campden tablets in every time I rack my carboys. I use 1 Campden tablet per gallon of wine. When I bottle my wine I put in a wine stabilizer so it doesn’t start to re-ferment. After I let it sit for a couple of days then I sweeten it up to taste. When you use the stabilizer the chances are slim that it starts to re-ferment in the bottle.

  3. I am in the process of making pear wine, organic from our trees, spring water and just Red Star yeast. Our little store in wine making near us went ape because I didn’t use Potassium Metabisulphite -3 tablespoons for 5 gallon jug. So the next two batches I did as she instructed. Waited one day for one caldron and two for the next. NOTHING….no yeast activity at all. Can I save my pear wine?? Or just forget it and start more? I have no idea why this happened even tho I am trying to read everything I can get my hands on…including all your great write ups!! Thank you for any help!

  4. Why is there no mention of wine conditioner in this discussion? Does wine conditioner stop fermentation and sweeten the wine?

    • Phil, Wine Conditioner contains potassium sorbate/wine stabilizer, the stabilizer in the wine conditioner will not stop a fermentation. There are no wine making products you can use that will safely do so. The wine stabilizer in the wine conditioner will only stop a fermentation from re-occurring. The following article will discuss this in more detail.

      Does Wine Conditioner Stop Fermentation
      http://www.eckraus.com/blog/wine-conditioner-stop-fermentation

  5. Hi
    Love your tips. I’m new at wine making. Have two apple trees that really produce.
    Also have access to Mature Minnesota pear tree. Have blended apple & pear juice,
    Have eighteen gallons in glass carbon with air locks at sixty degrees. How long till I bottle.

    • Bob, your wine is ready to bottle when the fermentation is complete and the wine is clear. The fermentation is complete when the specific gravity reading on the hydrometer reaches .998 or less. You say that the temperature of the juice is at 60 degrees. Most wine yeast like to ferment between 70-75 degrees. Anything cooler that that and you might have a stuck fermentation. For more information about when your wine is ready to bottle, please take a look at the article listed below.

      When Is My Wine Ready To Bottle
      http://www.eckraus.com/blog/is-my-wine-ready-to-bottle

  6. Could you please clarify this comment: “The recommended dosage for potassium sorbate is 1/2 teaspoon per gallons.”. It’s that per gallon or per 5 gallons?

  7. Very good point on each. 1. Campden Tablets. 2. Potassium Sorbate. 3. Wine Conditioner/Sugar. 4. Hydrometer. 5. Cleaning/Sanitizing all equipment. 6. Good Fruit. —- Top factors in making good home made wine.
    glv
    Life’s Good!

  8. I think I may have ruined my mulberry wine. I set it to ferment the 30th of May. I reracked it on June 3 and added a campden tablet. It fermented the second time and had finished on July 7 so I sweetened it (I like sweet wine!) and added a campden tablet. But I did not bottle it. I thought I had to let it set to clear first so it has been setting already sweetened and clearing. It has not started to re ferment since I added the sugar and it smells ok but I am afraid it may not be good. How can I tell? I am very new at this and look so forward to your teaching and at 82 I guess I can make a mistake but would like to not make any more!

    • Colleen, Letting it sit before bottling is not an issue as long as you add sulfites to preserve the wine. However, you do not mention adding potassium sorbate when you back-sweetened the wine. That is what keeps it from fermenting the newly added sugar. If you bottle it now it could start to re-ferment and the corks could pop or even worse the bottles could explode.I would not say that it is ruined, but you need to let it ferment out the added sugar until the gravity reaches .998 or less. Then you can add potassium sorbate and sweeten the wine again before bottling.

  9. Be cognitive of the fact that the addition of campden tablets can cause discoloration of your wine. I have never found any information regarding the effects of campden tablets on wine color. I made some beautiful colored red Muscadine wine, sweetened it, added campden tablets (1 per gallon), and potassium sorbate and then the wine changed from red to orange/brown. I ran a bench trail on my next batch to determine if the potassium sorbate or the campden tablets was the root cause of the color change. The culprit was campden tablets. A year later the wine is still orange/red in color but the taste was not impacted.

  10. ok so I am understanding that there is no way to stop a fermentation,, my last batch I made was watermelon wine, I was checking the SG every day near the end, and taste, when it got to SG=1.030, wow it really tasted good, the flavor was out of this world GREAT, so I thought I had done good, but then I let it continue to finish fermenting, to SG= 0.995, another wow but bad wow, it lost much of the flavor, it still has a small flavor taste, so I was thinking to myself that the next batch, I would stop it at the point where it tasted good, and not worry about ABV, now you shot me down. WHAT can I do to accomplish this???

    • James, it is true that there is no successful way to guarantee that you can permanently stop a fermentation before it completes. You need to let the fermentation complete. It is also true that the wine is dry when the fermentation completes and this does cause the wine to lose some of the fruit flavor. A way to regain the fruit flavor is to back-sweeten the wine before bottling. The article posted below will discuss this further. If you want the wine to have a lower alcohol content, you would reduce the amount of sugar added. You can use your hydrometer to determine how much to add.

      Bring Back Fruit Flavors
      https://blog.eckraus.com/increasing-your-wines-fruity-flavors
      Lowering The Alcohol Content
      https://blog.eckraus.com/control-alcohol-content-wine

  11. I bottled my wine before allowing it to stop fermenting. Several corks popped. However, the corks that did not pop since I bottled the batch nine months ago. The wine was fine. And no sugar was left on the bottom of the bottles. -This year I will wait for the fermenting to stop for about 3 months in the carboy. This is my 3rd year making wine from my back yard grape vine. This is a great web site for info. Thank You

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