I am using a concentrate that calls for 12 lbs of sugar. I read my hydrometer at 1.140 or 18.5% potential alcohol. Would this be correct or am I ready it wrong? Thanks again, you have a GREAT web site…..
Name: William R.
The wine hydrometer reading you provided is too high for a wine. Most wine yeast will have trouble fermenting that much sugar. As a fermentation continues, each additional percentage of alcohol gets harder and harder for the wine yeast to ferment.
A specific gravity reading of 1.140 on a hydrometer does coincide with a potential alcohol of 18.5%, so I do believe that the hydrometer showed this reading, but is it the correct reading? That’s the big question here!
Here’s what I know. If this is a 5 gallon batch and you added 12 pounds of sugar to it. This sugar, by itself, will create a potential alcohol of about 12%. I’m assuming that the directions with the concentrate said this was how much sugar to add. In addition to this, the concentrate will raise the potential alcohol reading even further. Any concentrate is mostly fruit sugars that will contribute to the potential alcohol. I can not tell you exactly how much the concentrate contributes without knowing more about the specific concentrate you are using.
There is also the distinct possibility that you got an incorrect reading, and that’s why the wine hydrometer reading is too high. There are three common ways we see home winemakers get incorrect hydrometer readings:
- Not Enough Wine Sample Was Used
One requirement for getting an accurate hydrometer readings is the hydrometer has to be floating. That’s what it’s all about, reading how high or low the hydrometer floats. If there is not enough wine to float the hydrometer you will get a reading that is meaningless. The hydrometer has to be off of the bottom.
- The Sugars Did Not Get Evenly Dissolved
The sugar in the wine must is what actually causes the hydrometer to float. The more sugar there is in the wine must, the higher the hydrometer will float. The more sugar there is, the more alcohol that can potentially be made. Sugar is what ferments into alcohol. This is the whole basis of a wine hydrometer. But if the sugar you add is not evenly blended throughout the wine, you will get an incorrect reading. The un-blended sugars drift to the bottom causing samples taken off the bottom through a spigot to be completely different than a reading taken off the top.
- The Calibration Of The Hydrometer Is Off
This doesn’t happen very often, but I have seen it happen once or twice over the years. The scales in a glass hydrometer are on one a piece of paper that is carefully tacked into place with a spot of wax from the inside. If the paper comes loose and the hydrometer is jarred around enough, the paper could slip. An easy way to check your hydrometer’s calibration is to float it in water. You should expect a specific gravity reading of 1.000 at a temperature of 60°F.
After reviewing the above, if you still determine that your wine hydrometer reading is too high. I would take some measures to lower it. This means diluting the wine must with more water. Shoot for a potential alcohol around 13% or 14%. Use a Champagne type yeast. This wine yeast is able to handle higher amounts of sugar than most.
WARNING: If the concentrate was packaged specifically for making wine, I doubt that you have an accurate reading, and one of the 3 above reasons are applying. It would be very unusual for a wine concentrate to be off. Not even a little bit. The wine concentrate producers know how to get you exactly to the reading you need simply by following the provided wine recipe. If this is specifically a wine concentrate I would be very hesitant to add any additional water or sugar to the wine must without making sure I got to the bottom of things.
Happy Wine Making,
Ed Kraus is a 3rd generation home brewer/winemaker and has been an owner of E. C. Kraus since 1999. He has been helping individuals make better wine and beer for over 25 years.